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Paquette and [14] Underwood (1999) found that both boys and girls rated nonphysical aggression such as name- calling as making them feel more “sad and bad‖ than did physical aggression purchase 400 mg hoodia overnight delivery. The Ability to Aggress Is Part of Human Nature We may aggress against others in part because it allows us to gain access to valuable resources such as food buy generic hoodia 400 mg on-line, territory order 400mg hoodia otc, and desirable mates, or to protect ourselves from direct attack by others. If aggression helps in the survival of our genes, then the process of natural selection may well [15] have caused humans, as it would any other animal, to be aggressive (Buss & Duntley, 2006). One of the primary functions of the amygdala is to help us learn to associate stimuli with the rewards and the punishment that they may provide. The amygdala is particularly activated in our responses to stimuli that we see as threatening and fear-arousing. When the amygdala is stimulated, in either humans or in animals, the organism becomes more aggressive. Neither people nor animals are always aggressive; they rely on aggression only when they feel that they absolutely need to (Berkowitz, Attributed to Charles Stangor Saylor. The prefrontal cortex serves as a control center on aggression; when it is more highly activated, we are more able to control our aggressive impulses. Research has found that the cerebral cortex is less active in murderers and death row inmates, suggesting that violent crime may be caused at least in part by a failure or reduced ability to regulate aggression (Davidson, [17] Putnam, & Larson, 2000). Most important in this regard is the male sex hormone testosterone, which is associated with increased aggression in both males and females. Research conducted on a variety of animals has found a positive correlation between levels of testosterone and aggression. This relationship seems to be weaker among humans than [18] among animals, yet it is still significant (Dabbs, Hargrove, & Heusel, 1996). Consuming alcohol increases the likelihood that people will respond aggressively to provocations, and even people who are not normally aggressive may react with aggression when [19] they are intoxicated (Graham, Osgood, Wells, & Stockwell, 2006). Alcohol reduces the ability of people who have consumed it to inhibit their aggression because when people are intoxicated, they become more self-focused and less aware of the social constraints that normally prevent them from engaging aggressively (Bushman & Cooper, 1990; Steele & Southwick, [20] 1985). Negative Experiences Increase Aggression If I were to ask you about the times that you have been aggressive, I bet that you would tell me that many of them occurred when you were angry, in a bad mood, tired, in pain, sick, or frustrated. And you would be right—we are much more likely to aggress when we are experiencing negative emotions. When we are frustrated we may lash out at others, even at people who did not cause the frustration. In some cases the aggression is displaced aggression, which is aggression that is directed at an object or person other than the person who caused the frustration. Griffit and Veitch (1971) had students complete questionnaires in rooms in which the heat was at a normal temperature or in which the temperature was over 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Aggression is greater on hot days than it is on cooler days and during hot years than during cooler years, and most violent riots occur during the hottest days of [22] the year (Bushman, Wang, & Anderson, 2005). If we are aware that we are feeling negative emotions, we might think that we could release those emotions in a relatively harmless way, such as by punching a pillow or kicking something, with the hopes that doing so will release our aggressive tendencies. Catharsis—the idea that observing or engaging in less harmful aggressive actions will reduce the tendency to aggress later in a more harmful way—has been considered by many as a way of decreasing violence, and it was an important part of the theories of Sigmund Freud. As far as social psychologists have been able to determine, however, catharsis simply does not work. Rather than decreasing aggression, engaging in aggressive behaviors of any type increases [24] the likelihood of later aggression. Bushman, Baumeister, and Stack (1999) first angered their research participants by having another student insult them. Then half of the participants were allowed to engage in a cathartic behavior: They were given boxing gloves and then got a chance to hit a punching bag for 2 minutes. Then all the participants played a game with the person who had insulted them earlier in which they had a chance to blast the other person with a painful blast of white noise. Contrary to the catharsis hypothesis, the students who had punched the punching bag set a higher noise level and delivered longer bursts of noise than the participants who did not get a chance to hit the punching bag.

Ayurvedic prac- titioners believe in the goal of balancing one’s energy From the Greek word energeia buy hoodia 400mg cheap, or the energy in order to move each individual into har- Latin energia hoodia 400mg free shipping, both meaning activity cheap hoodia 400 mg, the power or mony with cosmic consciousness. Treatments may involve nutrition modality and can be directed, modulated, balanced, and modification of diet, detoxification techniques and interfaced with other modalities. With their such as chelation therapy and heat depuration techniques, they pursue the concept that the trans- (high-temperature saunas to encourage excretion fer of energy from one human being to another is of toxins through the skin), immunotherapy (any not only a natural event, but a continuous one, method used to boost the immune system), and whether it is intended to be or not. Intentionality desensitization, particularly enzyme potentiated adds to the healing power of energy transfer. A long time may elapse energy medicine A form of treatment for pain before the desensitization process becomes effec- and various illnesses that employs electrical cur- tive. In alternative practice, electroacupuncture, auricular enzyme therapy The administration of supple- acupuncture, cymatics, light therapy, sound therapy, ments, enzymes including Donnazyme, Cotazyme, and microcurrent electrical therapy are some of the Creon, zymase, Ultrase, Pancrease, and other con- available treatments. People who have pacemakers ventional substances, for the treatment of enzyme or bleeding disorders or who are pregnant should deficiency that results from cystic fibrosis, not consider certain forms of energy medicine. Gaucher’s disease, and celiac disease, among other Microcurrent electrical therapy involves placing ailments. Digestive problems such as lactose intol- electrodes over painful areas of the body (or areas erance and chronic intestinal gas may be helped by opposite where the pain occurs) and running an certain over-the-counter enzyme products. Cellulase, 40 essence an enzyme not produced by the body but obtain- biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols. Coenzyme able only through supplements made from plants Q10, an antioxidant nutrient, is said to energize the and meant to digest fiber, is used for relief of gas body and strengthen cardiac health. Other enzymes and bloating as well as other ailments, including are also credited with having anti-inflammatory and vaginal yeast infections and facial pain or paralysis. For additional information on A lack of protease, which digests proteins, may enzyme therapy, contact the American Dietetic cause anxiety, hypoglycemia, appendicitis, cancer, Association, 216 W. In the body are essence (or jing) represents the body’s supply of qi, approximately 22 digestive enzymes produced for or ch’i, meaning “life energy,” and is considered the each stage of digestion. The In alternative medicine, plant enzyme therapy is Chinese believe one’s essence manifests in the skin, considered to have beneficial effects for those with tongue, and hair, and in one’s fertility, potency, and chronic digestive disorders, sore throat, hay fever, creativity. These characteristics are said to deter- ulcers, osteoporosis, myasthenia gravis, and candidi- mine a person’s ability to ward off debilitation and asis, and for anyone who wishes to increase nutrient promote longevity. In sum, enzyme therapists rely on a compassion and empathy to a person who is dying. The great task of Eternity Medicine is to facil- after the patient has eaten a meal; blood profile; and itate and not to obstruct this process,” Dossey a 24-hour urinalysis to diagnose a person’s ailment. Other supple- trolled physical exertion that is directed toward a ments, such as vitamin and mineral coenzymes, are specific goal, such as relieving stress or rehabilitat- often prescribed in conjunction with other treat- ing one’s constitution. Heat-stable, diffusible coenzymes of low mol- example, aerobic exercise, which includes a variety ecular weight serve as enzyme activators. Coenzyme of sports, is geared to a person’s body type, or A, for example, plays an important role in the dosha. Virtually all practitioners of conventional exudative 41 and alternative medicine recommend some form of extracts, herbal Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, physical exercise for optimal overall health. F face analysis In Ayurvedic medicine, the assess- (excerpted from Timeless Healing: The Power and Biol- ment of the skin, features, lips, color, and other ogy of Belief, by Herbert Benson, M. He said he meditated faith healing A term coined in 1885, referring to every night while he walked the dog. One night, the use of prayer and belief in the power of God to while walking down the street, he heard God say to treat disease and other forms of distress.

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According to this scale purchase hoodia 400mg on line, subjects were defined as precontemplators (n = 166) buy hoodia 400mg mastercard, contemplators (n = 794) and those in the preparation stage (n = 506) buy hoodia 400 mg without a prescription. Results The results were first analysed to examine baseline difference between the three subject groups. The results showed that those in the preparation stage smoked less, were less addicted, had higher self-efficacy, rated the pros of smoking as less and the costs of smoking as more, had made more prior quitting attempts than the other two groups. The results were then analysed to examine the relationship between stage of change and smoking cessation. At both one and six months, the subjects in the preparation stage had made more quit attempts and were more likely to not be smoking. Conclusion The results provide support for the stages of change model of smoking cessation and suggest that it is a useful tool for predicting successful outcome of any smoking cessation intervention. Clinical interventions: promoting individual change Clinical interventions often take the form of group or individual treatment programmes based in hospitals or universities requiring regular attendance over a 6- or 12-week period. These interventions use a combination of approaches that reflect the different disease and social learning theory models of addiction and are provided for those individuals who seek help. Disease perspectives on cessation Within the most recent disease models of addiction, nicotine and alcohol are seen as addictive and the individual who is addicted is seen as having acquired tolerance and dependency to the substance. For example, nicotine fading procedures encourage smokers to gradually switch to brands of low nicotine cigarettes and gradually to smoke fewer cigarettes. It is believed that when the smoker is ready to completely quit, their addiction to nicotine will be small enough to minimize any withdrawal symptoms. Although there is no evidence to support the effectiveness of nicotine fading on its own, it has been shown to be useful alongside other methods such as relapse prevention (for example, Brown et al. Nicotine replacement procedures also emphasize an individual’s addiction and depend- ency on nicotine. For example, nicotine chewing gum is available over the counter and is used as a way of reducing the withdrawal symptoms experienced following sudden cessation. The chewing gum has been shown to be a useful addition to other behavioural methods, particularly in preventing short-term relapse (Killen et al. More recently, nicotine patches have become available, which only need to be applied once a day in order to provide a steady supply of nicotine into the bloodstream. They do not need to be tasted, although it could be argued that chewing gum satisfies the oral component of smoking. However, whether nicotine replacement procedures are actually compensating for a physiological addiction or whether they are offering a placebo effect via expecting not to need cigarettes is unclear. Treating excessive drinking from a disease perspective involves aiming for total abstinence as there is no suitable substitute for alcohol. Social learning perspectives on cessation Social learning theory emphasizes learning an addictive behaviour through processes such as operant conditioning (rewards and punishments), classical conditioning (associations with internal/external cues), observational learning and cognitions. Therefore, cessation procedures emphasize these processes in attempts to help smokers and excessive drinkers stop their behaviour. These cessation procedures include: aversion therapies, contingency contracting, cue exposure, self-management techniques and multi-perspective cessation clinics: 1 Aversion therapies aim to punish smoking and drinking rather than rewarding it. Early methodologies used crude techniques such as electric shocks whereby each time the individual smoked a puff of a cigarette or drank some alcohol they would receive a mild electric shock. However, this approach was found to be ineffective for both smoking and drinking (e. Wilson 1978), the main reason being that it is difficult to transfer behaviours that have been learnt in the laboratory to the real world. In an attempt to transfer this approach to the real world alcoholics are sometimes given a drug called Antabuse, which induces vomiting whenever alcohol is consumed. This has been shown to be more effective than electric shocks (Lang and Marlatt 1982), but requires the individual to take the drug and also ignores the multitude of reasons behind their drink problem.

The yellow card/black triangle scheme was pital patients and records: also instrumental in the early identification of urticaria and 1 purchase hoodia 400mg amex. A unique feature of comprehensive drug-monitoring sys- Systems such as the yellow card scheme (e order hoodia 400mg line. In addition cheap 400mg hoodia mastercard, this database could reveal geo- tions or drug interactions are sought by multiple correlation graphical differences in the pattern of untoward drug effects. Thus, when an unexpected relationship arises, such as the 20% incidence of gastro-intestinal bleeding in severely ill patients treated with ethacrynic acid compared to 4. Conversely, there is a tify patients with a disorder which it is postulated could be possibility of chance associations arising from multiple com- caused by an adverse reaction to a drug, and to compare the fre- parisons (‘type I’ statistical error), and such associations must quency of exposure to possible aetiological agents with a con- be reviewed critically before accepting a causal relationship. A prior suspicion (hypothesis) must exist to prompt is possible to identify predisposing risk factors. In the associ- the setting up of such a study – examples are the possible con- ation between ethacrynic acid and gastro-intestinal bleeding, nection between irradiation or environmental pollution and these were female sex, a high blood urea concentration, previ- certain malignancies, especially where they are observed in ous heparin administration and intravenous administration of clusters. An important aspect of this type of approach is that from faulty selection of patients and controls, and the approach lack of clinically important associations can also be investi- remains controversial among epidemiologists, public health gated. Thus, no significant association between aspirin and physicians and statisticians. Despite this, there is really no prac- renal disease was found, whereas long-term aspirin consump- ticable alternative for investigating a biologically plausible tion is associated with a decreased incidence of myocardial hypothesis relating to a disease which is so uncommon that it infarction, an association which has been shown to be of thera- is unlikely to be represented even in large trial or cohort popu- peutic importance in randomized clinical trials (Chapter 29). This methodology has had notable successes: the associ- There are plans to extend intensive drug monitoring to cover ation of stilboestrol with vaginal adenocarcinoma, gatifloxacin other areas of medical practice. Patients are not Several hospital-based intensive monitoring programmes are in hospital long enough for detection of delayed effects, which currently in progress. The Aberdeen–Dundee system abstracts are among the reactions least likely to be recognized as such data from some 70000 hospital admissions each year, storing even by an astute clinician. The factors that determine the development of allergy to a A great deal of information is available from death certificates, drug are not fully understood. From these are more likely to cause allergic reactions than others, and data, it may be possible to detect a change in disease trends type I (immediate anaphylactic) reactions are more common and relate this to drug therapy. Although rel- drug allergies are more common in older people, in women atively inexpensive, the shortcomings of this method are obvi- and in those with a previous history of drug reaction. However, ous, particularly in diseases with an appreciable mortality, this may merely represent increased frequencies of drug expo- since large numbers of patients must suffer before the change is sure in these patient groups. It commonly occurs in response to a foreign serum National Formulary, indicates the need to be particularly or penicillin, but may also occur with streptomycin and some suspicious about adverse drug reactions and to report local anaesthetics. With penicillin, it is believed that the peni- any suspected adverse drug reaction via the yellow card cilloyl moiety of the penicillin molecule is responsible for the system. Treatment of anaphylactic shock is • Constant vigilance by physicians for drug-induced disease, particularly for new drugs, but also for more detailed in Chapter 50. If an acute and serious glomerulonephritis, and a syndrome resembling systemic lupus problem is recognized, doctors will usually receive notifica- erythematosus. Examples of causative agents include serum, penicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, streptomycin and propylthiouracil. Drugs given orally are less likely to cause severe allergic resultant rash if the drug is applied again. Delayed sensitivity can also result giving a very small dose of the drug and increasing the from the systemic administration of drugs. An Key points antihistamine may be added if a drug reaction occurs, and How to attempt to define the drug causing the adverse equipment for resuscitation and therapy of anaphylactic drug reaction: shock must be close at hand. It is often successful, although the mechanism by which it is achieved is not • Attempt to define the likely causality of the effect to fully understood.

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