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Guilford posited that the ability to en- ideas in both children and adults leads to increased cre- vision multiple solutions to a problem lay at the core of ativity generic npxl 30caps on-line. He called this process divergent thinking and by four-year-olds increased dramatically when novel de- its opposite—the tendency to narrow all options to a sin- signs were praised by adults; when this positive rein- gle solution—convergent thinking buy 30 caps npxl amex. Guilford identified forcement was stopped generic npxl 30caps with amex, the children reverted to produc- three components of divergent thinking: fluency (the ing unimaginative patterns. Other studies have used sim- ability to quickly find multiple solutions to a problem); ilar techniques to boost creativity scores of fifth graders, flexibility (being able to simultaneously consider a vari- improve the originality of stories written by sixth ety of alternatives); and originality (referring to ideas graders, and increased the ability of college students to that differ from those of other people). One interesting finding signed to assess an individual’s aptitude for divergent in studies such as these is that positively reinforcing one thinking included the Torrance (1962) and Meeker kind of creative activity encourages original thinking in (1969) tests. See also Intelligence quotient Those that measure verbal ability include: Further Reading • Word fluency : writing words containing a given letter Briggs, John. Fire in the Crucible: The Alchemy of Creative • Ideational fluency: naming things that belong to a Genius. Understanding Creativity: The Interplay of Bi- ological, Psychological, and Social Factors. San Francis- • Associational fluency:writing synonyms for a specified co: Jossey-Bass, 1998. In addition, it may • Alternate uses: listing as many uses as possible for a be impossible for any test to measure certain personal given object traits that are necessary for success in creative endeav- ors, such as initiative, self-confidence, tolerance of ambi- • Plot titles: writing titles for short-story plots guity, motivation, and perseverance. Tests also tend to • Consequences: listing consequences for a hypothetical create an anxiety-producing situation that may distort the event (“What if no one needed to sleep? Growing Up Creative: Nurturing a Lifetime of Cre- sketches of recognizable items ativity. Divergent thinking tests are generally evaluated based on the number and variety of answers provided; the originality of the answers; and the amount of detail they contain (a characteristic referred to as elaboration). Crisis intervention A number of creativity tests currently in use include sec- tions that measure divergent thinking. Rather than ways of thinking, some creativity tests evaluate attitudes, behavior, creative perception,orcre- The term crisis intervention can refer to several dif- ative activity. Some creativity tests specifically address ferent therapeutic approaches, which are applied in a va- the problem of assessing creativity in minority popula- riety of situations. The common denominator among tions, who are at a disadvantage in tests that place a these interventions, however, is their brief duration and strong emphasis on verbal and semantic ability. The Eby their focus on improving acute psychological distur- Gifted Behavior Index reflects the growing view of cre- bances rather than curing long-standing mental disor- ativity as specific to different domains. Some common examples of crisis intervention in- six talent fields: verbal, social/leadership, visual/spatial, clude suicide prevention telephone hotlines, hospital- math/science problem-solving, mechanical/technical, based crisis intervention, and community-based disaster and musical. Two psy- chiatrists in particular heavily influenced our approach to Creativity tests have been found reliable in the sense crisis intervention with their crisis theory. Erich Linde- that one person’s scores tend to remain similar across a mann and Gerald Caplan believed that, when people are variety of tests. However, their validity has been ques- in a state of crisis, they are anxious, open to help, and tioned in terms of their ability to predict the true creative motivated to change. In one study, there was programs is therefore the belief that providing support little correlation between the scores of both elementary and guidance to people in crisis will avert prolonged and secondary students on divergent thinking tests and mental health problems. Creativity tests have Crisis or suicide hotlines offer immediate support to also been criticized for unclear instructions, lack of suit- individuals in acute distress. Further, some centers rope indicates that this type of counseling often has no will arrange referrals to clinicians.

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Primary npxl 30 caps with visa, second- ness level by supporting existing strengths and ary generic 30caps npxl with amex, and tertiary prevention nursing actions are listed conserving client system energy buy npxl 30caps free shipping. The nature of California State University, Fresno; Indiana stressors and their threat to the client-client system University, Indianapolis; Purdue University, Fort are first determined for each type of prevention Wayne, Indiana; University of Tennessee; and the before any other nursing actions are initiated. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota, also have used the model Global Applications of the Model (Glazebrook, 1995; Hilton & Grafton, 1995; Klotz, 1995; Lowry & Newsome, 1995; Stittich, Flores, & Because the model is flexible and adaptable to a Nuttall, 1995; Strickland-Seng, 1995). Neuman’s first book, The Neuman Systems (1) facilitated cultural considerations in the cur- Model: Application to Nursing Education and riculum related to the populations the schools and Practice, was published in 1982 as a response to re- graduates served (Stittich, Flores, & Nuttall, 1995), quests for data and support in applying the model. This edition is used as a primary needs (Lowry & Newsome, 1995), (5) was compre- resource for global applications highlighted in this hensive and facilitated seeing the person as com- chapter (Neuman, 1995). The clude the United States and locations such as curriculum evaluation instrument cited in the liter- Canada, Europe, Australia, and the Far East. This instrument was developed to ex- have chosen to use the Neuman Systems Model as a amine the efficacy of using the model at Cecil curriculum framework or for selected courses. Most schools surveyed indicated reasons they chose The results of a five-year longitudinal study showed the Neuman model. These include consistency with that the graduates used the model most of the time the school’s beliefs; philosophy; and concepts of when fulfilling roles of care provider and teacher. Sixteen All classes in the study claimed colleagues rarely community college and university nursing pro- knew, accepted, or encouraged model use. Associate degree nurs- colleagues in work settings tended to have a nega- ing programs that have used the model include tive effect on the use of models. Athens Area Technical Institute, Athens, Georgia; The model is also being used internationally. Cecil Community College, North East, Maryland; Craig (1995b) reported on the experiences of 10 Central Florida Community College, Ocala, educational institutions in Canada in six Canadian Florida; Los Angeles County Medical Center provinces. These institutions include the University School of Nursing, Los Angeles Valley College, Van of Saskatchewan, University of Prince Edward Nuys, California; Santa Fe Community College, Island, University of Calgary, Brandon University Gainesville, Florida; and Yakima Valley Community of New Brunswick, Université de Moncton, College, Yakima, Washington. Model strengths that Hileman, & Grant, 1995; Stuart & Wright, 1995; were reported include the holistic approach, which Trepanier, Dunn, & Sprague, 1995; Ware & addressed levels of prevention that guided the Shannahan, 1995). The model also assisted the student Canada, the United Kingdom, Sweden, the to carry out in-depth assessments, to categorize Netherlands, New Zealand, Australia, Jordan, Israel, comprehensive data, and to plan specific interven- Slovenia, and several East Asian countries (e. Practice areas include culty in understanding the complexity of the model community/public health care (Betty Neuman, per- and the developmental and spiritual variables. McCulloch (1995) reported that a survey of all Australian university The Neuman Systems Model has been used in di- programs showed that four undergraduate pro- verse nursing administration settings in the United grams used the model as the major organizational States. These settings include a community nursing curriculum framework, and another 16 programs center, psychiatric hospital, a continuing care re- introduced undergraduate and postgraduate stu- tirement community, and Oklahoma State Public dents to the Neuman Model as one of several mod- Health Nursing (Frioux, Roberts, & Butler, 1995; els. Vaughan and Gough (1995) found that many Rodriguez, 1995; Scicchitani, Cox, Heyduk, nursing and midwifery students chose to use the Maglicco, & Sargent, 1995; Walker, 1995a). Poole and Flowers (1995) demonstrated how the They also reported that Avon and Gloucestershire model is used in case management of pregnant College of Health used the model as the guiding substance abusers. Kelley and Sanders (1995) pre- principle behind curriculum development for child sented an assessment tool that intertwines the care. Engberg (1995) reported that most colleges management process, the Neuman Systems Model, throughout Sweden use the Neuman Systems and environmental dimensions. Walker (1995b) Model as the theoretical framework in the module demonstrated how the model and total quality of primary health in nursing education. In the United States, the Gigliotti (1997) acknowledged that the Neuman model is used to guide practice with clients with Model’s use as a guide in directing nursing educa- cognitive impairment, meeting family needs of tion and clinical practice has received much na- clients in critical care; to provide stable support tional and international attention. To facilitate the use of nursing research psychiatric nursing, gerontological nursing, peri- with the Neuman Systems Model, Meleis (1995) natal nursing, and occupational health nursing has elaborated on principles and approaches that (Bueno & Sengin, 1995; Chiverton & Flannery, may be used to develop a futuristic agenda to vali- 1995; McGee, 1995; Peirce & Fulmer, 1995; Russell, date the Neuman Systems Theory. Procter and Cheek studied experiences of Serbian Neuman revisited these guidelines in her 1996 arti- Australians at the time of the civil war in the former cle in Nursing Science Quarterly. She acknowledged Yugoslavia using the Neuman model to understand that the Neuman model has guided a range of study the experiences.

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Each of us continually young North American men and a few women traveled faces new challenges about how we will make our place in to Germany to study with Wilhelm Wundt effective npxl 30caps, who had es- the world 30caps npxl visa. As the discipline of psychology matured discount npxl 30 caps with amex, ad- tablished a laboratory and the first graduate program of justment courses gave way to substantive content courses study in psychology at the University of Leipzig in Ger- that offered not just psychology’s latest findings about de- many. They returned to teach psychology and train other velopmental and identity issues, but also featured those students in the major universities of this country with the more traditional areas of cognitive, experimental, physio- intent of quantifying individual differences and impor- logical, and social psychology. The advances in the scientific side lished a Psychological Clinic at the University of Penn- of psychology were paralleled by the remarkable growth sylvania to help children who were having difficulty in of counseling, clinical, and school psychology. To keep up with the rapidly expanding field, the Being a psychologist, he assumed that his new pro- newly revised second edition of the Gale Encyclopedia fession—dedicated to learning and memory—would of Psychology has added about a third more entries and help him assist children who were having trouble read- biographies. Coverage includes the key concepts on ing, writing, spelling, and remembering information. Clinical information is broadly plex, theoretical notions within the experimental labora- covered, noting the various psychological theories and tories, and he turned to schoolteachers and social work- techniques currently in use and the scientific evidence ers for practical advice. Biographical profiles of major figures in the field of psychology are included, ranging from the Thus began the long struggle between the scientific earliest historical pioneers to current clinicians. On the battle- experiments are valid and replicable (that is, others pur- field, clinicians were helping troops who were experienc- suing the same questions with appropriate methods ing “traumatic neurosis, ” originally called “shell shock” would find the same results). They sometimes feel that in the First World War and now known as post-traumatic clinicians, for example, use psychotherapy techniques stress disorder. When the soldiers returned home, they led that have not been proven to be useful and may even be therapy groups for wounded military personnel. The Veteran’s Hospitals, in The earliest psychologists worked primarily with chil- particular, needed well-trained personnel to provide men- dren, usually those who were delinquent or having trouble tal health services for their patients. They were particularly taken with assessing in- ence held in Boulder, Colorado established standards of telligence and translated a test developed by a Frenchman, education and training for clinical psychologists. They began testing soldiers recruited for the First internship and receive the Ph. According to their tests, they found almost half of newer of training are available for students who want to the young, white male recruits and some 80% of Eastern place more emphasis on practice and less on doing re- European immigrants to be “morons. In addition to university graduate programs, a think the uses of intelligence tests, especially because of large number of professional schools have been estab- opinions like that of journalist Walter Lippman, who rec- lished, often offering a Psy. D (doctor of psychology) de- ommended that the “intelligence testers and their tests gree. Currently, some 4,000 students graduate each year should be sunk without warning in the… sea. The over- denied entrance into this country, and intelligence testing whelming majority of these graduates go into clinical or laid the base for human eugenics laws that allowed individ- applied work, although changing conditions in the health uals who were found “intellectually unfit” to be sterilized. With the introduction of psy- A field as broad as psychology, which stretches from choanalysis into this country, people wanted to “adjust” the study of brain cells to that of prison cells, is an active, through self-examination and the probing of the uncon- argumentative, and exciting adventure that offers oppor- scious. The scientific psychologists were dismayed at the tunities in science, practice, and social policy. Most of the excesses of pseudopsychologists, whose ranks included pressing economic and social issues of our generation, mind readers and charlatans. Psychological clinicians such as the environment, health needs, poverty, and vio- were concerned as well and took steps to develop a stan- lence, will only be alleviated if we understand the ways in dard of ethics and ways of identifying appropriately which people create or creatively solve the problems that trained psychologists. The student who is interested in unraveling the secrets of the human brain to see the mind With the advent of the Second World War, psycholo- at work, who is fascinated about how children grow up gists joined the military effort and were surprised them- and become competent adults, who is dedicated to bring- selves by how much they had to offer. Human factors psy- ing people together to resolve conflict, who is committed chologists designed airplane cockpits and the lighting on to helping people with physical, emotional, or behavioral runways that we still use today. Gestalt psychologists difficulties, or who is challenged by the desire to develop taught American citizens how to identify enemy planes social policy in the public interest is welcomed in psy- should they fly overhead. We hope this encyclopedia will provide useful guide missiles toward enemy targets.

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