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When the gene is no longer to be transcribed trusted imipramine 75mg, tary base pairing with DNA during genetic transcription (RNA the separated DNA strands can recoil into their helical form purchase imipramine 50mg amex. Every three bases effective imipramine 75mg, or base triplet, is a “code word”— In the case of pre-mRNA, the finished molecule is altered called a codon—for a specific amino acid. Within the pre-mRNA are noncoding regions their amino acid “translation” are shown in figure 3. The introns are removed through the action of mRNA move through the ribosome, the sequence of codons is enzymes, and the coding regions are then spliced together so that translated into a sequence of specific amino acids within a grow- they can direct the synthesis of a specific protein. Translation of the codons is accomplished by transfer RNA (tRNA) and particular enzymes. The anticodon consists of three nucleotides Protein Synthesis that are complementary to a specific codon in MRNA. Enzymes Once produced, mRNA leaves the nucleus and enters the cyto- in the cell cytoplasm join specific amino acids to the ends of plasm, where it attaches to ribosomes. The mRNA passes through tRNA, so that a tRNA with a given anticodon is always bonded a number of ribosomes to form a polyribosome, or polysome for to one specific amino acid. Cytology © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition of the Body Companies, 2001 Chapter 3 Cytology 69 Codons Anticodons mRNA C Next amino acid Ala U A 9 C G tRNA 5 8 C G I A U Codons 7 H 4 U A tRNA 6 C G G G 5 F Gly Next amino acid 4 E 3 Iso D Gly 2 C Ser Iso 1 B A Amino acids Gly in growing Ser polypeptide chain Met Gly Met Ribosome FIGURE 3. The three-letter abbreviations for the amino acids in the growing polypep- tide chain stand for the amino acids indicated in figure 3. Each syn- tide chain lengthens as new amino acids are added to its growing thetase must not only recognize its specific amino acid, it must tip (fig. This polypeptide chain is always attached by also be able to attach this amino acid to the particular tRNA means of only one tRNA to the strand of mRNA, and this that has the correct anticodon for that amino acid. Each of the tRNA molecule is always the one that has added the latest tRNA molecules in the cytoplasm of a cell is thus bonded to a amino acid to the growing polypeptide. At the end of this process, the new protein detaches from the tRNA as the last amino acid is added. The anticodons of tRNA bind to the codons of mRNA as the mRNA moves through the ribosome. Because each tRNA mol- ecule carries a specific amino acid, the joining together of Cell Cycle and Cell Division these amino acids by peptide bonds forms a polypeptide whose amino acid sequence has been determined by the sequence of A cell cycle is the series of changes that a cell undergoes from codons in mRNA. Interphase is the first period of the cycle, from cell amino acids together, and a peptide bond forms between them. During inter- The first amino acid then detaches from its tRNA, so that a phase, the cell grows, carries on metabolic activities, and pre- dipeptide is linked by the second amino acid to the second pares itself for division. When the third tRNA binds to the third codon, the Interphase is divided into G1, S, and G2 phases. During amino acid it brings forms a peptide bond with the second amino the G1 (first growth) phase, the cell grows rapidly and is meta- acid (which detaches from its tRNA). The duration of G1 varies considerably in differ- tached by the third amino acid to the third tRNA. It may last only hours in cells that have rapid Van De Graaff: Human III. Cytology © The McGraw−Hill Anatomy, Sixth Edition of the Body Companies, 2001 70 Unit 3 Microscopic Structure of the Body Mitotic Phase Highly specialized cells, such as muscle and nerve cells, do not replicate after a person is born. If these cells die, as the re- sult of disease, injury, or even disuse, they are not replaced and scar tissue may form. Nerve cells are especially vulnerable to damage from oxygen deprivation, alcohol, and various other drugs.

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Changes in central ve- Three Fourths of the Blood in the Systemic nous pressures are a good indicator of central blood volume Circulation Is in the Veins because the compliance of the intrathoracic vessels tends to Approximately 80% of the total blood volume is located in be constant buy 50mg imipramine fast delivery. In certain situations purchase 50mg imipramine amex, however imipramine 25mg on line, the physiologi- the systemic circulation (i. About 60% of the total ample, if the tricuspid valve is incompetent, right ventricu- blood volume (or 75% of the systemic blood volume) is lo- lar pressure is transmitted to the right atrium during cated on the venous side of the circulation. In general, the use of central venous ent in the arteries and capillaries is only about 20% of the pressure to assess changes in central blood volume depends total blood volume. Because most of the systemic blood vol- on the assumption that the right heart is capable of pump- ume is in veins, it is not surprising that changes in systemic ing normally. Also, central venous pressure does not neces- blood volume primarily reflect changes in venous volume. Abnormalities in right or left heart function or in pul- monary vascular resistance can make it difficult to predict Small Changes in Systemic Venous Pressure left atrial pressure from central venous pressure. Can Cause Large Changes in Venous Volume Unfortunately, measurements of the peripheral venous pressure, such as the pressure in an arm or leg vein, are sub- Systemic veins are approximately 20 times more compliant ject to too many influences (e. If 500 mL of blood is infused into the circulation, about 80% (400 mL) locates in the systemic circulation. This in- crease in systemic blood volume raises mean circulatory Cardiac Output Is Sensitive to Changes filling pressure by a few mm Hg. This small rise in filling in Central Blood Volume pressure, distributed throughout the systemic circulation has a much larger effect on the volume of systemic veins Consider what happens if blood is steadily infused into the than systemic arteries. Because of the much higher compli- inferior vena cava of a normal individual. As this occurs, the ance of veins than arteries, 95% of the 400 mL (or 380 mL) volume of blood returning to the chest—venous return—is is found in veins, and only 5% (20 mL) is found in arteries. This difference between the input and output of atmospheric) results in little distention of arteries because blood produces an increase in central blood volume. It will of their low compliance, but results in considerable disten- occur first in the right atrium where the accompanying in- tion of veins because of their high compliance. In fact, ap- crease in pressure enhances right ventricular filling, end-di- proximately 550 mL of blood is needed to fill the stretched astolic fiber length, and stroke volume. Increased flow into veins of the legs and feet when an average person stands up. Left cardiac output will increase according but to a lesser extent, because the increase in transmural to Starling’s law, so that the output of the two ventricles ex- pressure is less. Cardiac output will increase until it equals Blood is redistributed to the legs from the central blood the sum of the previous venous return to the heart plus the volume by the following sequence of events. However, much of the blood reaching the legs remains in the veins as Central Blood Volume Is Influenced by they become passively stretched to their new size by the in- Total Blood Volume and Its Distribution. As cardiac output exceeds venous re- of the ventricles, and therefore, central blood volume is an turn for a few beats, the central blood volume falls (as does important influence on cardiac output. Central blood vol- the end-diastolic fiber length, stroke volume, and cardiac ume is altered by two events: changes in total blood volume output). Once the veins of the legs reach their new steady- and changes in the distribution of total blood volume be- state volume, the venous return again equals cardiac output. The equality between venous return and cardiac output is reestablished even though the central blood volume is re- Changes in Total Blood Volume. However, the new cardiac output and ve- blood volume can occur as a result of an infusion of fluid, nous return are decreased (relative to what they were before the retention of salt and water by the kidneys, or a shift in standing) because of the reduction in central blood volume. A decrease in Without compensation, the resulting decrease in systemic blood volume can occur as a result of hemorrhage, losses arterial pressure would cause a drop in brain blood flow and through sweat or other body fluids, or the transfer of fluid loss of consciousness.

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Its main source is Cannabis sativa purchase 25 mg imipramine overnight delivery, a bushy plant that grows in many parts of the world and is also cultivated in the UK buy 75mg imipramine mastercard. The main active ingredients in cannabis are the tetrahydrocannabinols (THC) buy imipramine 75 mg without prescription. These are the chemicals that cause the main effects on the brain and although the most prevalent is the D9 THC, there are many others that add to the effect. Different forms of cannabis come from different parts of the plant and have different strengths. It is mostly imported from Morocco, Pakistan, the Lebanon and Afghanistan. It is also cultivated in the UK, sometimes on a large scale to sell but sometimes by individuals in their homes or greenhouses for their own use. In the UK the drug is usually smoked rolled into a cigarette or joint, often with tobacco. The herbal form is sometime made into a cigarette without using tobacco or it can also be smoked in a pipe, brewed into a tea or cooked into cakes. Of course, the fibre of the cannabis plant is non-psychoactive and hemp has a long history, being used to make rope, mats, clothing, cooking oil, fuel and varnishes. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the UK and easily the illegal drug most likely to have been tried by young people. Probably over 5 million people have used it at least once and many people are regular users. It is not surprising that cannabis is the most-seized drug and that the large majority of court cases involve this drug. Others are very much against the idea on both health and moral grounds but the former view has been taken by many police forces who now no longer prosecute those found with small amounts of the drug. There are many issues to debate, few of which have been discussed in detail in the UK. Currently, there is discussion of the medical aspects of the pharmacology of cannabis. There are suggestions, based on anecdotes, animal studies or pressure group opinions, that the drug can be useful to treat glaucoma, in the control of the muscle spasms that are one of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis and for appetite stimulation in cases of chemo- and radiotherapy. The status of cannabis is such that doctors cannot prescribe smokable cannabis to their patients, although synthetic THC preparations (nabilone) are available for nausea. There is growing pressure on the British government to change the law so that the required controlled clinical studies on the potential effects of cannabis can be carried out. A particular restriction on cannabis (and opium) is the offence of allowing your house (or any other premises you have responsibility for) to be used for growing cannabis or smoking it. These maximum penalties are only rarely imposed except where there is very large-scale supplying or trafficking. Most prison sentences for cannabis possession and small-scale supply are less than one year. Effects/risks Smoking cannabis causes a number of physical effects including increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure, bloodshot eyes, increased appetite and mild dizziness. The effects are rapid in onset and start within a few minutes and may last several hours depending on how much is taken. When eaten the effects are slower in onset but then DRUG DEPENDENCE AND ABUSE 509 longer in duration. Eating cannabis may mean a large dose is taken at once, making it difficult to avoid any unpleasant reactions. Cannabis has a mild sedative effect, not unexpected with the receptors for this drug being inhibitory. Many people find that when they first use cannabis nothing much happens.

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