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Which agent did the physician likely perfusion to the kidneys purchase tetracycline 250 mg with mastercard, so an agent that prescribe? Clonidine works by (A) Mannitol (A) Activating b1-adrenergic receptors (B) Indomethacin (B) Activating a1-adrenergic receptors (C) Furosemide (C) Activating b2-adrenergic receptors (D) Vasopressin (D) Activating a2-adrenergic receptors (E) Probenecid (E) Blocking b-adrenergic receptors 15 250 mg tetracycline free shipping. Her thyroid- (B) Increases permeability of the collecting stimulating hormone levels are normal buy 250mg tetracycline otc, but she duct has increased levels of urinary catecholamines. The surgeon (E) Reduces production of prostaglandins should start therapy with which of the following agents prior to removing the lesion? A 45-year-old man with a 60-pack/year (A) Dopamine history of smoking presents to his primary (B) Phentolamine care provider with loss of appetite, nausea, (C) Pancuronium vomiting, and muscle weakness. Laboratory ble for both asthma and angina now has a kid- results reveal low levels of sodium, which in this ney stone stuck in his right ureter. Which 326 Pharmacology medication might be helpful for this patient’s (C) Chlordiazepoxide symptoms? A 57-year-old man with a strong family (E) Allopurinol history of Parkinson disease sees a neurologist for an evaluation. Which of the following is a common adverse neurologist notes a slight pill-rolling tremor effect of quinidine? He begins treat- (A) Cinchonism ment with levodopa, along with the addition of (B) Lupuslike syndrome carbidopa. What is the mechanism of action of b-block- (C) Inhibits catechol-O-methyltransferase ers in heart disease? The patient in the previous question returns to see his neurologist 3 years later. Which of the following would be useful in the patient’s symptoms have progressed, and the management of arrhythmia due to Wolf- he now has marked bradykinesia and a pro- Parkinson-White syndrome? Which of the following would be a good (A) Memantine option to help a patient fall asleep with minimal (B) Donepezil ‘‘hangover’’? Risperidone works primarily through inhi- psychiatrist with expertise in addiction medi- bition of receptors for cine. He explains that he has recently received (A) Dopamine his third drunk driving citation and fears losing (B) Serotonin his license to practice unless he stops drinking (C) Histamine altogether. He tells the physician that he doesn’t (E) Norepinephrine have time to attend Alcoholics Anonymous and ‘‘wants a pill. A 7-year-old boy is brought to the neurolo- is something that might work if the patient is gist by his mother. What agent is the physician teacher says there are times in class when he considering? Which of the following can be used to treat (C) Thrombocytopenia a 22-year-old with a recent diagnosis of (D) Aplastic anemia schizophrenia? Which of the following agents is approved (C) Dantrolene for treatment of diabetic neuropathy? A 5-year-old boy is brought to the emer- (C) Agranulocytosis gency room by his parents after they found (D) Photosensitivity him with an empty bottle of aspirin. While the emergent treatment that may cause hemorrhagic cystitis and is started, a sample is drawn for an arterial cardiomyopathy? What pattern is most (A) Azathioprine likely to be indicated by the arterial blood gas (B) Cyclosporine values? Which of the following is an antidote for agent that has been shown to help patients with iron overdose? Which of the following is true regarding provide the best relief from episodic attacks of infliximab? A 56-year-old woman with severe rheuma- toid arthritis returns to see her rheumatologist. Which of the following is useful in an acute She had been referred to a gastroenterologist, gout attack? At this point, what would be reasona- (E) Celecoxib ble for the rheumatologist to prescribe?

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It is not possible to include a dummy variable for each level of the variable because the dummy variables would lack independence and create multicollinearity cheap 250 mg tetracycline. Therefore for k levels of a variable tetracycline 500 mg line, there will be k − 1 dummy variables purchase 500mg tetracycline mastercard, for example, for a variable with three levels, two dummy variables will be created. It is helpful in interpreting the results if each dummy variable has a binary coding of 0 or 1. The variable parity1 with three levels from Chapter 5, that is parity coded as babies with 0, 1 or 2 or more siblings, can be recoded into dummy variables using Transform → Recode into Different Variables. Dummy variables are invalu- able for testing the effects of ordered groups that are likely to be different, for example, lung function in groups of non-smokers, ex-smokers and current smokers. It is essen- tial that dummy variables are used when groups are non-ordered; for example, when marital status is categorized as single, married or divorced. Related dummy variables must always be included in a model together because they cannot be treated independently. If one dummy variable is significant in the model and a related dummy variable is not, they must both be left in the model together. In the Model Summary table, the adjusted R square value shows that the addition of the dummy variables for parity improves the fit of the model only slightly from 0. In the Coefficients table, the P values for the unstandardized coefficients show that both dummy variables are significant predictors of weight with P values of 0. However, the low standardized coefficients and the small partial correlations in the Excluded Variables table show that the dummy variables contribute little to the model compared to length and gender. Using the values in the Coefficients table, the regression equation is now as follows: Weight =−4. The coefficients for the final two terms indicate that after adjusting for length and gender, babies with one sibling are on average 0. The previous regression model with one conti- nuous and two categorical variables, that is, length, gender and parity, can be further extended with the addition of second continuous explanatory variable, that is, head circumference. The final predictive equation could be used to generate normal values for term babies, to calculate z scores for babies’ weights, or to calculate per cent predicted weights. Correlation and regression 229 The regression model obtained previously can be built on to test the influence of the variable, head circumference. The model in which parity2 was included as a binary vari- able is used because including parity with three levels coded as dummy variables did not substantially improve the fit of the model. The Model Summary table shows that the adjusted R square increases slightly from 55. The Change Statistics indicates that the increase in R2 from Model 1 to Model 2 is significant. In the Coefficients table, all predictors are significant and the standardized coefficients show that length contributes to the model to a greater degree than head circumference, but that head circumference makes a larger contribution than gender or parity. This is expected because the initial Pearson’s correlations showed a significant association between length and head circumference with an r value of 0. As a result of the mutlicollinearity, the standard error for length has inflated from 0. Head circumference is expected to vary with length as a result of common factors that influence body size and growth. In this situation, head circumference should be classified as an alternative 230 Chapter 7 outcome rather than an independent explanatory variable because it is on the same developmental pathway as length. Each model building situation will be different but it is important that the relationships between the variables and the purpose of building the model are always carefully considered. If an interactive effect is present, the two lines would have different slopes and would cross over or intersect at some point. To test for the presence of an interaction, the two variables are multiplied to create a cross-product term, which is included in the multiple regression model. In the following equation, the fourth term represents an interaction between length and gender. Also, once again, coding of binary variables as 0 and 1 is helpful for interpreting interactions.

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