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The precise chronological sequence of the various stages in this debate is difficult to reconstruct discount cytotec 100 mcg without prescription, but the theoretical issues that were raised had a major impact on subsequent medical thinking cytotec 100mcg lowest price, especially on the great medical systems of late antiquity order cytotec 100 mcg with mastercard, namely Galen’s and Methodism buy discount cytotec 200 mcg line. Galen is one of those authors who have been rediscovered by classicists and students of ancient philosophy alike cytotec 100 mcg online, be it for his literary output, his mode of self-presentation and use of rhetoric, the picture he sketches of the intellectual, social and cultural milieus in which he works and of the traditions in which he puts himself, and the philosophical aspects of his thought – both his originality and his peculiar blends of Platonism, Hippocratism and Aristotelianism. Galen’s work, voluminous in size as well as in substance, represents a great synthesis of earlier thinking and at the same time a systematicity of enormous intellectual power, breadth and Introduction 29 versatility. In chapter 10, I shall consider Galen’s theoretical considerations about pharmacology, and in particular his views on the relationship between reason and experience. Although in the field of dietetics and pharmacology he is particularly indebted to the Empiricists, his highly original notion of ‘qualified experience’ represents a most fortunate combination of reason and experience; and one of Galen’s particular strengths is his flexibility in applying theoretical and experiential approaches to different domains within medical science and practice. Among Galen’s great rivals were the Methodists, a group of medical thinkers and practitioners that was founded in the first century bce but came to particular fruition in the first and second centuries ce, especially under their great leader Soranus. Although their approach to medicine was emphatically practical, empirical and therapy-oriented, their views present interesting philosophical aspects, for example in epistemology and in the as- sumption of some kind of corpuscular theory applied to the human body. Regrettably, most works written by the Methodists survive only in frag- ments, and much of the evidence is biased by the hostile filter of Galen’s perception and rhetorical presentation. Caelius has long been dismissed as an unoriginal author who simply translated the works of Soranus into Latin. However, recent scholarship has begun to appreciate Caelius’ originality and to examine his particular version of Methodism. This overlap not only concerned the ideas, concepts and method- ologies they entertained, but also the ways and forms in which they ex- pressed and communicated these ideas, the modalities of dissemination and persuasion, and the settings in which they had to work and present 32 For a collection of the fragments of the Methodists see now Tecusan (2004). I touch here on a further aspect in which the study of ancient medicine – and philosophy – has recently been contextualised, and in this case the impetus has come from a third area of research we need to consider briefly because of its particular relevance to the papers collected in this volume, namely the field of textual studies or, to use a more recent and specific term,‘discourse analysis’. One only needs to point to the twenty-two volumes of Kuhn’s¨ edition of the works of Galen or the ten tomes of Littre’s´ edition of the works of Hippocrates to realise that ancient medical literature has been remarkably well preserved, at least compared with many other areas of classical Greek and Latin literature. While much philological spade-work has been done to make these texts more accessible, especially in projects such as the Corpus Medicorum Graecorum or the Collection des Universites de France´ , many parts of this vast corpus of literature, to which newly discovered texts continue to be added, still await further investigation. There still is, of course, a great basic demand for textual studies, edi- tions, translations, commentaries and interpretative analyses – and in this respect, the triennial conferences on Greek and Latin medical texts have proved remarkably fruitful. Yet apart from this, there is an increasing in- terest being taken in medical, scientific and philosophical texts, not just because of their intellectual contents but also from the point of view of linguistics, literary studies, discourse analysis, narratology, ethnography of literature (orality and literacy), rhetoric and communication studies. This is related to a growing scholarly awareness of the communicative and com- petitive nature of Greek medicine and science. Greek doctors, philosophers, astronomers and mathematicians had to impress their audiences, to per- suade them of their competence and authority, to attract customers and to reassure them that they were much better off with them than with their rivals. Medical, scientific and philosophical texts functioned in a specific setting, with a particular audience and purpose, and served as vehicles not only for the transmission of ideas but also for the assertion of power and authority. These developments have given rise to a whole new field of studies and questions regarding the ways in which knowledge was expressed and com- municated in the ancient world: the modes of verbal expression, technical idioms, stylistic registers and literary genres that were available to people who laid a claim to knowledge (healers, scientists, philosophers) in order to convey their views to their fellows, colleagues and their wider audiences; the rhetorical strategies they employed in order to make their ideas intel- ligible, acceptable, or even fashionable; the circumstances in which they Introduction 31 had to present their ideas, and the audio-visual means (writing facilities, diagrams, opportunities for live demonstration) they had at their disposal; the interests and the expectations of their audiences, and the ways in which these influenced the actual form of their writings; and the respects in which ‘scientific’, or ‘technical’, or ‘expert’ language or ‘discourse’ differed from ‘ordinary’ and ‘literary’ language and ‘discourse’. After many years of considerable neglect, the last two decades have thus seen a significant increase in attention being given to the forms of ancient scientific writing, especially among students of the Hippocratic Corpus, but also, for example, on Latin medical literature, with some studies focusing on ‘strictly’ linguistic and textual characteristics, while others have attempted to relate such characteristics to the wider context in which the texts were produced. First, general trends in the study of rhetoric and discourse analysis, in particular the study of ‘non-literary’ texts such as advertisements, legal proceedings, minutes of meetings, political pamphlets and medical reports, the study of rhetoric and persuasive strategies in apparently ‘neutral’ scien- tific writings, and the development of genre categories based on function rather than form have led to a growing awareness among classicists that even such seemingly ‘unartistic’, non-presumptuous prose writings as the extant works of Aristotle, the Elements of Euclid and the ‘notebook-like’ Hippocratic Epidemics do have a structure which deserves to be studied in its own right, if only because they have set certain standards for the emergence and the subsequent development of the genre of the scientific treatise (‘tractatus’) in Western literature. It is clear, for example, to any student of Aristotle that, however impersonal the tone of his works may be and however careless the structure of his argument may appear, his writings nonetheless contain a hidden but undeniable rhetoric aimed at making the reader agree with his conclusions, for example in the subtle balance be- tween confident explanation and seemingly genuine uncertainty, resulting in a careful alternation of dogmatic statements and exploratory suggestions. The study of these formal characteristics has further been enriched by a growing appreciation of the role of non-literal, or even non-verbal as- pects of communication (and conversely, the non-communicative aspects of language). Aesthetics of reception, ethnography of literature and studies in orality and literacy have enhanced our awareness of the importance of 34 For more detailed discussion and bibliographical references see van der Eijk (1997), from which the following paragraphs are excerpted. Here, again, discourse studies and ethnogra- phy of literature have provided useful instruments of research, for example D. Hymes’ analysis of the ‘speech event’ into a number of components that can, not without some irony, be listed according to the initial letters of the word speaking: setting (time, place, and other circumstances), scene (e. A recent German collection of articles on ‘Wissensvermittlung’ (‘transmission of knowledge’) in the ancient world gives an impression of the kind of questions and answers envisaged from such an integrated approach. At this point, a most fortunate connection can be perceived between linguistically inspired approaches within classical philology and the recent surge of a ‘contextual’ approach in the history of science, whereby the text is seen as an instrument for scientists and practising doctors to use to define 35 Hymes (1972) 58ff.

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